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Components of Hydro Electric Power Plant

Components of Hydro Electric Power Plant Points : Components of Hydro Electric Power Plant, Layout of Hydro Electric Power Plant The main components of a Hydro electric power plant are given below.
1. Power House
2. Penstock
3. Water Reservoir
4. Water Turbine or Hydraulic Turbine (Prime mover)
5. Spillway
6. Dam
7. Surge Tank
8. Draft Tube
9. Tail Race Level
10. Gate
11. Pressure Tunnel
1. Power House Power house contain generator, water turbine, with transformer and control room. When the water rushes through the turbine, it turns the turbine shaft, which is attached to electric generator. Generator has a rotary electromagnet call a rotor with a stationary element call a stator. Rotors generate magnetic fields that create an electric charge in stator. Charge is transmitting as electricity. Step up transformer increase the voltage of current coming as of the stator. Electricity is dispersed through power lines. 2. Penstock Penstock pipe is use to convey water as of the dam to hydraulic turbine. Penstock pipes are invented of steel or reinforced material. Turbine is installing at a lesser level as of the dam. Penstock is give by a gate valve at inlet to totally close the water supply. It has a control valve to control water flow rate into turbine. 3. Water Reservoir In reservoir water collect as of the catchment area during raining period is store at the back a dam. Catchment area obtains its water as of rains with streams. Permanent accessibility of water is a essential necessity for a hydroelectric power plant. The stage of water surface in reservoir is call Head water level. Eater head presented for power generation depends on reservoir height. 4. Water Turbine or Hydraulic Turbine (Prime mover) Hydraulic turbines change energy of water in mechanical energy. Mechanical energy (revolution) accessible on turbine shaft is attached to shaft of an electric generator with electricity is created. Water after performing work on turbine blade is discharge through draft tube. Prime movers which are in regular use are Francis turbine, Pelton wheel, Kaplan turbine. 5. Spillway Overload addition of water endanger the strength of dam construction. Also in order to shun the overflow of water out of dam mainly during raining seasons spillways are providing. This prevents the increase of water level in dam. Spillways are passage which allows excess water to flow to a dissimilar storage area away as of the dam. 6. Dam The function of dam is to store water with to control the outgoing flow of water. Dam helps to store all incoming water. It too helps to raise the head of water. In order to make a necessary quantity of power, it is needed that an enough head is available. 7. Surge Tank Surge tank is a little tank or reservoir in which water level rise or waterfall due to unexpected changes in pressure. There might rapid enhance of pressure in penstock pipe due to rapid backflow of water, as load on turbine is condensed. This rapid rise of pressure in penstock pipe is identified as water hammer.

Surge tank is initiate among the dam with the turbine and serves the follow reason:
To decrease the distance among the free water surface in dam and turbine, thus dropping the water hammer cause. Otherwise, penstock will damage with the water effect.

To provide as a supply tank to turbine while the water in pipe is accelerates during amplified load situation and as a storage tank while the water is decelerating during reduced load situation.
8. Draft Tube Draft tube is joined to outlet of turbine. It changes the kinetic energy available in water in pressure energy in diverge section. Therefore, it retain a pressure of just above the over the atmospheric at end of draft tube to travel the water into a tail race. Water as of the tail race is free for irrigation reason. 9. Tail Race Level Tail race is a water path to guide the water discharge as of the turbine to river or canal. Water held in the tail race is call Tail race water level. 10. Gate Gate is use to adjust or control the flow of water as of the dam. 11. Pressure Tunnel This way that carries water as of the reservoir to surge tank.

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