(i) Blade friction might incur frictional loss which is taken into explanation with blade friction factor.
(ii) Boundary layer separation can occur due to sharp deflection of fluid in blade passage. Deflection results in centrifugal force which causes solidity by concave surface with the rarefaction near convex surface of blade, so resulting in division of boundary layer.
(iii) Loss of power can be due to turbulence at exit of preceding row of nozzles due to limited thickness of nozzle way out edge. There is mixing of steam jet exit nozzles and ingoing moving blade.
(iv) Loss of energy is too there due to break of flows which occur ahead the impingement of steam ahead the leading edging of moving blade. This is too term as impingement loss. These losses are fewer if flow is laminar as evaluate to turbulent flow.
(v) Loss of energy too occurs through passage of steam as of one stage to other explicitly rows. This loss is also term as carry over loss. This carry over loss is minimum if spacing among successive rows is kept small. 4. Losses in Nozzles Steam turbine nozzle is planned for isentropic increase so as to effect in enlarges in velocity as of inlet to exit. Almost in a nozzle steam exit nozzle can not have velocity equal to planned velocity value. This difference in working state of nozzle can occur as of non-isentropic expansion. The cause for non-isentropic expansion can be friction losses among the steam and nozzle wall, viscous friction resistance to flow in steam particle, boundary layer creation and division, heat loss through flow and so on. 5. Losses in Bearings Turbine bearings are important parts to hold high speed revolving of shaft. Usually, a loss to tune of 1% of turbine output occurs in bearings. Although this loss depends upon oil viscosity, bearing weight, speed of shaft, bearing surface area and film thickness and so on. 6. Windage Loss Windage loss happens as rotor blades come in contact by near fixed fluid (steam). In case of part admission turbines that are usually impulse turbines there is churn of steam in expanse having no active steam in steam turbine. As moving rotor blades come in contact by inactive steam then there is move of energy as of blade to steam. This loss of energy as of rotor to fluid is term as ‘windage loss’. 7. Losses Due to Radiations Radiation losses too happen in steam turbines, while they are extremely small compare to other losses and can be neglect. In case of steam turbines the high temperature steam is partial to small part of case so losses are small. But radiation losses are fairly important in gas turbines. In order to stop radiation losses the pipings, turbine casing etc. carrying hot fluid must be well insulate. 8. Loss Due to Leakage Steam leakage can happen across the turbine shaft and among stages. Leak of steam can result in accessibility of less work as of stage as steam is not entirely utilized for produce work. Leak occurs through flow as of one stage to other or as of one row to other during the clearance gap among diaphragm and shaft. Leak too occurs across the blade tip. Leak transversely diaphragm occurs in equally impulse turbine and reaction turbine stages. Leak across tip is not major in case of impulse turbine as pressure dissimilarity is extremely small. Tip leakage is major in reaction turbine stages.