The analysis of a example of coal is on one of two basis:
(i) Proximity analysis specifies, on mass basis, the relative quantity of moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbons and ash.
(ii) The eventual analysis specifies on a mass basis, relative quantity of carbon, hydrogen, sulphur, nitrogen, oxygen and ash. The ultimate analysis can be given on an ‘as received’ basis or on a dry basis. Liquid Fuels The major source of liquid fuels is:
(i) Petroleum or crude oil
(ii) By products from coal gas manufacture
(iii) Vegetable matter
Fuels in spark ignition engines are of unstable nature. Kerosene, Petrol, benzole and alcohol. Those use in compression ignition engines are of non-volatile type, for e.g., diesel oil anti gas oil.
Volatility is a quantify of the ease with which a fuel vapourises at normal atmospheric state.
Fuels that have their chemical structure based on molecules of connected hydrogen and carbon atoms are call hydrocarbons.
Alcohol fuels are compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
The following are the main advantages of liquid fuels:
(i) Higher calorific value
(ii) Remove wear and tear of grate
(iii) Simple starting and stopping of the engine
(iv) Easy combustion control
(v) Storage and transportation are at relieve
(vi) Maintenance of engine is easy Petroleum or Crude Oil Petroleum is a broad, dark coloured liquid which is found under earth and contains a large number of different compunds of hydrogen and carbon. The partition of petrol into the different fraction is achieve by distillation, through heating petroleum and condense the Vapour which evaporate at different temperatures and pressures.
Crude petroleum is divided into petrol, paraffin, diesel oil, kerosene, gas oils, fuel oil, Fuel oils are use in marine engines and in furnaces of oil fired boilers, paraffin wax and bitumen or asphatt. A only some of the crude petroleum are some as follows:
3. Fuel Oils