1. Long shot arm suspension system
2. Torsion bar suspension system
3. McPherson Strut Suspension system 1. Long Short Arm Suspension Early independent Iron: suspension systems had two control arms of the same length. They were called parallelogram system because through the front pivot formed a parallelogram.
Bin this system did not permit both the wheels to move up and down independently. It was a draw back. When a tire encountered a bump in the road, the tire and the wheel moved upward and inward. This inward movement made the tire slide sideways. Naturally due to this reaction the tire was excessively wearied. To eliminate this sideward movement of the tire tread on the road. The long short arm suspension system (SALA) was introduced, which means short upper control arm and long lower arm suspension system.
The top of the wheel tire moves inward and outward when the wheels move up and down. The SALA suspension system gives negative effect as it moves up and down due to which the tire wear occurs at the inside of the tire. It is a disadvantage of this system. 2. Torsion Bar Suspension System In the SALA suspension system a torsion bar is added instead of coil spring. The rear end of the torsion bar is rigidly attached to the cross member of the car frame so it is held stationary. The front end is attached to the lower control arm at a point halfway between the arm pivots.
As the lower control arm moves up and down pivoting on the frame, the torsion bar twists or less. The car weight places an initial twist on the bar. The twisting of the torsion bar provides the springing effect. 3. McPherson Strut Suspension system It was only one control arm and strut (spring, damper and shock absorber units to support each wheel assembly.
A conventional lower control arm attaches to the frame and to the lower ball joint. The ball joint holds the control arm to the steering knuckle or bearing support. The top of the bearing support or steering knuckle is bolted to the strut. The top of the strut is fastened to the reinforced body strut.
A Macpherson strut is the most common type of suspension found the late model cars. It may be used on both the front and rear wheels. It reduces the number of moving parts in the suspension system to decrease un-sprung weight, and gives ride smoothness.
A modified strut suspension has the coil spring mounted on the top of the lower control arm. Rear Suspension System The system are similar to front suspension systems but do not has provision for steering. With rear wheel drive car the rear axle housing car may be solid resulting in non independent suspension. Non-Independent Rear Suspension A typical rear suspension setup of a rear wheel drive car. It has solid axle housing. Note that the coil springs are mounted between the control arms and frame. Independent Suspension System Many car use independent rear suspension like front independent suspension system. It increased side smoothness. This type of suspension can be used with either at front or rear wheel drive car.